As a body of theoretical knowledge, urban morphology in the West principally emerged within two disciplines and two parts of Europe. On the one hand there is the Anglo-German geographical school, associated with M.R.G Conzen. On the other hand there is the Italian architectural school, associated with Gianfranco Caniggia and Saverio Muratori. Based on an introduction to the theoretical tradition of the two morphological schools and their relationships, this book explores their application in empirical research and planning practice. In relation to the making of Chinese urban landscape, this book particularly focuses on the advancement of urban morphological theory and its significance for urban conservation.