Big Earth Data in Support of the Sustainable Development Goals (2020) : China presents 42 case studies of "Big Earth Data Science Engineering Program" (CASEarth) on the development of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) indicators and sustainability assessments in six SDGs, including SDG 2 (Zero Hunger), SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation), SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities), SDG 13 (Climate Action), SDG 14 (Life below Water), and SDG 15 (Life on Land). These cases provide in-depth research and monitoring results of relevant SDG targets at national and local scales by means of data products, methods and decision support, including 41 data products, 21 methodologies and 30 results that are of value to policy-making. These case demonstrate China's exploration and practice of implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development based on science, technology and innovation ; fully reveal the great value and broad prospect of Big Earth Data technology in monitoring and evaluating SDGs ; pioneer new ways to use advanced technologies such as big data and artificial intelligence to support the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Under the framework of the UN Technology Facilitation Mechanism (TFM). This report also provide reference for other countries to strengthen the monitoring and evalution of implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.